1998 Conference Programme

Genetics, Identity and Justice

Merton College, Oxford
27 March - 4 April 1998

Senior Fellow

Professor Ronald DworkinProfessor of Jurisprudence, Oxford University, Frank Sommers Professor of Law, New York University


Genetic science - looking ahead

Professor Sir David WeatherallRegius Professor of Medicine, Oxford University

Dolly - the implications of cloning

Dr Alan Colman Research Director, PPL Therapeutics, Roslin, Edinburgh

Genetic engineering - a brave new world?

Professor John HarrisSir David Alliance Professor of Bioethics, University of Manchester

Commentary on Aspects of the Senior Fellow's Paper

Derek ParfitPhilosopher, All Souls College, Oxford

Science driven by commerce

Dr Nick Scott-RamIndependent Biotechnology Consultant; Dr John Padfield, CEO, Chiroscience Group plc

Social policy

Sir Colin CampbellChairman of the UK Human Genetics Advisory Commission;
Janet Radcliffe-RichardsMoral and Political Philosopher, The Open University Medical Ethics
Professor Theresa Marteau Professor of Health Psychology and Director of the Psychology and Genetics Research Group, Guy's and St Thomas's Medical School, London
Professor Sheila McLeanProfessor of Law and Ethics in Medicine, University of Glasgow

Religious perspectives

Revd Dr Michael ReissSenior Lecturer in Biology, Homerton College, Cambridge
Professor Ziauddin SardarVisiting Professor of Science Policy, Middlesex University and consulting editor of Futures
Revd Dr Anthony Fisher OPLecturer in Ethics and Moral Theology, Australian Catholic University

Genetics and Risk Management

Dr M A PattonConsultant Clinical Geneticist, St George's Hospital Medical School, London
International policy making
Professor Alain Pompidou MEPProfessor of Medicine, Réné Descartes University, Paris

An Overview

Professor Steven RoseProfessor and Chair, Department of Biology, The Open University

A Circumscribed Plea for Active Euthanasia and Mercy Killings

Dr Rafi Cohen-AlmagorPolitical Scientist and Bio-ethicist, Haifa University

Love's Labours Lost? Self-ownership, Left-Libertarianism and Cloning

Justine BurleyPhilosopher, University of Manchester and Exeter College, Oxford

Patents or Conundrums

Dr Harriet StrimpelSenior Scientist and Patent Agent, Bromberg and Sunstein Attorneys, Boston

Advertised Synopsis

In recent years scientists have made astounding progress in identifying human genes and their functions - using embryonic tissue to predict physical structure, predisposition to disease, and perhaps personality - and even in manipulating genes so as to change that structure, predisposition and personality.

The cloning of a sheep from adult tissue was only the most dramatic example of this progress, and the extraordinary reactions, which included calls for legislation banning further research into human cloning, demonstrate a strong, if inarticulate, sense that genetic research has seismic implications.

This conference aims to promote better informed debate on these issues beyond purely scientific circles, examining

  1. the state of the art in genetic mapping and manipulation, and prospective fresh discoveries and techniques
  2. the need for legislation covering research into cloning or other aspects of genetic manipulation, and the use of genetic information for "eugenic" purposes or in setting insurance policies
  3. broader questions of culture, such as the effect of genetic developments on our sense of identity or our moral and ethical convictions.

Will genetics turn out to have the impact on our intellectual, religious and moral life that evolution and relativity had? Or even greater impact?

The 21st Century Trust gratefully acknowledges the support of SmithKline Beecham plc for the holding of this conference.


New Debates in Disarmament: Nuclear and Other Weapons

Klingenthal Castle, near Strasbourg
29 May - 6 June 1998

Senior Fellow

Dr Lynn E. DavisUS Under Secretary of State for Arms Control and International Security Affairs 1993-1997, now with the RAND Corporation


Current Disarmament Issues : An Overview

Carol GiacomoSenior State Department Correspondent, Reuters

Land Mines: Accomplishments and Tasks Ahead

Simone WisotzkiPeace Research Institute, Frankfurt

Land Mines: Accomplishments and Tasks Ahead

Simone WisotzkiPeace Research Institute, Frankfurt

The Case for Eliminating Nuclear Weapons

Field Marshal Lord Carverformerly UK Chief of Defence Staff

The Case for Retaining Nuclear Weapons

Sir Michael QuinlanDirector, The Ditchley Foundation, formerly Permanent Under Secretary at the UK Ministry of Defence

The View From America

Jan LodalUnited States Deputy Under Secretary of Defense

The Small Arms Debate

Prof Virginia GambaInstitute for Security Studies, Johannesburg

Responding to the Proliferation Threats Posed by Uncooperative States

Oksana Antonenko-GamotaInternational Institute for Strategic Studies, London

Advertised Synopsis

This conference will examine attempts since the end of the Cold War to move beyond the reduction of armaments levels to the elimination of entire types of weapons.

The focus will be on the new debate over the future of nuclear weapons arising out of the work of the Canberra Commission, but will also look at the problems of the proliferation of other weapons, including land mines and small arms.

Particular issues that will be covered include the political requirements for successful disarmament; the role of advanced weapon systems in increasing or decreasing international security; the practical difficulties in achieving disarmament, such as verification; and the appropriate policies for dealing with rogue states.


Corruption and Its Victims - Business, Government, Society The Search for Higher Standards

Queens' College, Cambridge
10 -18 July 1998

Senior Fellow

George Moody-StuartChairman of Transparency International (UK)


Combatting corruption - the role of the international community

Dhan Singhfreelance consultant and until recently with The World Bank

What are the responsibilities of multi-national corporations?

Mark Moody-StuartChairman and Chief Executive, Shell International

The crisis of cronyism: the significance of corruption in Japan

Professor Ron DoreJohns Hopkins University, Bologna campus

Combatting corruption - the domestic front

Jeremy PopeDirector of Planning, Transparency International UK
Bertram de Spévilleformerly of Hong Kong's Independent Commission Against Corruption

Combatting corruption the US position

Jonny FrankCo-leader of Price Waterhouse's Business Integrity and Investigative Service Practice, New York

Corruption in municipalities - the case of La Paz

Lindsey Parrisconsultant to the World Bank

The arms trade

Joe Roeberfreelance journalist

The drugs trade and organised crime

Alison Jamiesonfreelance author and consultant

Case Study: Kenya

John Githongofreelance journalist

Case Study: Uganda

Augustine Ruzindana MPmember of the Ugandan Parliament and formerly Inspector-General of the Ugandan Government


Advertised Synopsis

Corruption, an ancient phenomenon defined as the misuse of public power for private profit, has grown alarmingly in recent years.

The old-fashioned view of corruption as endemic to exotic cultures has been overturned by the emergence of major scandals in the developed world; but the main victims are still the less privileged nationals of developing countries.

In collaboration with Transparency International, the international not-for-profit organization dedicated to curbing corruption world-wide, we aim at this conference to examine the problem at both the international and the national level, and to consider how best to promote the adoption of higher standards.


The International Community and its Role in Preventing, Managing and Resolving Conflict

Madingley Hall, Cambridge
17 - 25 September 1998

Senior Fellow

Sir Marrack GouldingWarden of St. Antony's College, Oxford, and until recently Under-Secretary-General at the United Nations where he was responsible for peace-keeping (1986-1993) and Political Affairs (1993-1997)


The problem of consent: when can the international community insist on playing a role in conflicts? When should it?

Professor Adam RobertsProfessor of International Relations, Oxford University
Major Jane HollCarnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict, Washington DC

Political will and material resources: how far does the international community really want to play a role?

M. Jacques AndréaniAmbassadeur de France, French Ambassador to the United States 1989 to 1995

What is the impact of the media on policy making by the international community?

Nik GowingInternational TV news presenter and consultant on the media in conflict situations

Responses to conflict (l) The effectiveness of the United Nations, regional organizations and ad hoc coalitions of states

Dr Michael WilliamsSenior Consultant, Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Geneva

Responses to conflict (ll) Possible roles of non-state actors, NGO's and transnational corporations

Nick ButlerGroup Policy Adviser, British Petroleum
Professor Thomas WeissDistinguished Professor of Political Science, City University of New York
Bill YatesDirector of the Great Lakes Programme, International Alert

Case studies of the use of troops to protect humanitarian operations: Bosnia and Somalia

General Sir Rupert SmithGeneral Officer Commanding, Northern Ireland, formerly Commander of UNPROFOR in Bosnia, Deputy SACEUR-designate


Tim JudahFreelance Journalist

Advertised Synopsis

If the popular reaction to crises in remote parts of the world during the nineteenth century was "Send a gunboat!", it now seems to be "The International Community must act!"

This conference is designed not to question the latter sentiment, but to examine what it means, specifically what the international community is, and what it - or portions of it - can, cannot, or should do in response to conflict and humanitarian crisis.

It will look at constituent parts of the international community (the United Nations, regional bodies, national governments, non-governmental organizations, the media, transnational corporations) and consider in what sense they constitute a "community".

Using recent case studies, we will also examine whether their respective roles could be better defined or coordinated in the different forms of international response to crisis diplomatic action (preventative diplomacy, peace-keeping) military action.


1998 Fellowship Programme

Implementing Human Rights in the 21st Century

(In Conjunction with Wilton Park)

Wiston House
26-30 October 1998


Europe's Role in Promoting Human Rights

Jeremy LesterDeputy Head, Human Rights and Democratisation Unit, DGIA, European Commission

To What Extent Should Foreign Policy Seek to Promote Human Rights?

Professor Fred HallidayLondon School of Economics

What Can Be Done to Improve National Implementation and International Supervision?

Kassie NeouExecutive Director, Cambodian Institute of Human Rights
F Pearl EliadisDirector, Public Policy and Public Education, Ontario Human Rights Commission

Legislative, Administrative and Practical Problems of Implementing Human Rights at the National Level

Professor Alexander ManovCo-ordinator, Centre for International Protection, Moscow

Has the Vienna Conference Improved Respect for Human Rights?

Andrew AndersonDirector, Campaigning and Crisis Response, Amnesty International

Does Advocating Human Rights Undermine the Stability of States?

Professor Rein Müllerson King's College, London

Building a Successful Human Rights Campaign: Lessons from Slave Trade Abolition

Dr Paul KielstraDirector of Studies, 21st Century Trust

International Financial Institutions and Human Rights Conditionality

Ambassador Dr Itekhar Ahmed ChowdhuryVice Chairman, United Nations Human Rights Commission

To What Degree Should and Can Human Rights Determine Trade and Investment Decisions

Dr Vincent CableMember of Parliament and former Chief Economist, Shell International

The Role of International NGOs

Professor Kevin BoyleUniversity of Essex

The Role of Corporations in Promoting Human Rights

Sir Geoffrey ChandlerChair, Amnesty International UK Business Group

Workers' Rights in China

Professor Wu Yu ZhangLaw Institute, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences

Human Rights and the Practice of International Relations

Professor Marilyn McMorrowGeorgetown University

To What Extent Should and Can Aid and Development Policy Promote Human Rights?

Julia HäusermannPresident, Rights and Humanity

What Should and Can the Electronic Media do to Promote Respect for Human Rights?

Zeinab BadawiBroadcaster and Consultant

Implementing Human Rights in the 21st Century

Tony LloydMember of Parliament, Minister of State, Foreign and Commonwealth Office

Advertised Synopsis

December 1998 marks the fiftieth anniversary of the signing of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the fifth anniversary of the Vienna Human Rights Conference. This conference will examine how governments, business, and NGOs in the post-Cold War world can best ensure international respect for human rights. To what degree should and can foreign policies in the developed world be determined by human rights criteria? Should and can developed countries link human rights considerations to aid-giving and lending consistently? To what extent should and can trade policy and other instruments be used to promote human rights? This conference will be held in conjunction with the Wilton Park conference organization.