2001 Conference Programme

1. Rethinking Security for the 21st Century

Merton College, Oxford
23-31 March 2001




Senior Fellow

Dr Christopher CokerLondon School of Economics


Peace, security and the UN in the future

Ambassador Lakhdar BrahimiSpecial Representative of the UN Secretary General

Globalization and the changing structure of international relations

Professor Zaki LaïdiCERI, Paris

Constraints and opportunities for the military in future wars

William DollJoint Warfare Analysis Center

Cyber-war and cyber-terrorism

Dr Paul Kielstra21st Century Trust

The risk society and the assessment of threat

Dr Ragnar LofstedtUniversity of Surrey

Transnational crime: case studies

The Mediterranean

Dr Claire SpencerCentre for Defence Studies, King's College London

The Caribbean

Yolande FordeConsultant criminologist, Barbados

South Africa

Dr Pingla UditSpecial Advisor, Office of the National Director of Public Prosecutions

Permeable borders

i. Evironmental risks

Dr Alan DupontAustralian National University

ii. Disease

Julian LambertUK Department for International Development

Privatization of security

Jed SnyderSenior National Security Advisor, Dyn Meridian Corporation, USA

The security agendas characteristic of post-modern states

Robert CooperForeign Policy Adviser, 10 Downing Street

Advertised Synopsis

The end of the Cold War encouraged us to think we would feel more secure. Instead developed societies in particular feel even less secure than ever. Rather than the threat of nuclear war we face a variety of risks, some environmental, others social, all potentially demoralising. Our sense of insecurity is now determined by a range of different issues: migration; disease (especially AIDS); environmental pollution and crime. War itself is now less and less immediate in our imagination. What has happened? Why are we less fearful but more anxious than ever? This conference will look at the changing security agenda and the dynamics of insecurity which has emerged since the end of the Cold War: the result of globalisation and the emergence of risk societies. It will focus on individual challenges such as crime and disease in the context of security thinking. It will require us to ask to what extent transnationalism is forcing us to rethink security. And it will ask what strategies are best suited to make people feel more secure in the future, whether universal, regional, or local, government or private. Should we be managing insecurity, containing challenges or going further and trying to resolve problems with the confidence sometimes shown in the past?


2. The Economic, Political and Social Implications of the Internet: just how radical will they be?

Download John Naughton's Introductory Paper

Endicott House, MIT, Boston, United States
26 June - 3 July 2001


What is really new in the New Economy and what will endure?

Professor Hal VarianUniversity of California at Berkeley

The Net and Freedom

Tom GibsonManaging Partner, Kirkwood/Gibson Consultants

What long term changes await business and consumers?

Professor Jim Norton Institute of Directors, London

Shaping the future of the Internet: Economics vs. Technology

Dr David ClarkMassachusetts Institute of Technology

The Internet, governance and government

Esther DysonChairman, EDventure Holdings, former Founding Chairman of ICANN

Politics and the Internet

Doug HattawayChief spokesperson for Al Gore 2000 Presidential campaign


Daniel Stedman-JonesDemos, London


Monique van Dusseldorpvan Dusseldorp & partners, Amsterdam

The digital divide: what it means, and how it can be addressed

Professor Ernest WilsonDept. of Government and Politics, University of Maryland

Case study: Internet radio

SantosoRadio 68H, Indonesia

Society on-line: can the Internet provide new forms of community or new democratic structures?

Professor Lee SproullNew York University

Case Study:

Professor Michael ShaferRutgers University

Innovation and the Internet

Professor Lawrence LessigStanford Law School, Stanford University

Advertised Synopsis

The Internet, together with new communications technologies and a precipitous decline in the cost of data transfer look set to transform the infrastructure of the 21st century world. Businesses, governments, NGOs and other organizations are being compelled to transform how they operate and relate to one another, while individual societies and the world in general have to face the danger of 'digital divides' exacerbating existing inequalities. A grasp of the attendant economic, political, social, and cultural implications of these developments is vital for the formation of policy in this area. This conference will consider aspects of the communications revolution, including: how communications technology is likely to evolve in the near future; how it is affecting and will affect the way humans interact, and the impact this might have on society (both domestic and international); the changes the Internet is bringing to how we shop, do business, and invest, including the implications of e-business for traditional economies and governmental structures, as well as claims of a new economic paradigm; how the role of NGOs might develop in the face of these innovations; how technological changes might alter the way societies govern themselves, either in more democratic or more authoritarian ways; the extent to which the Internet should or even can be regulated - and by whom - and the implications for free speech and libel laws; how the technology will transform public education and learning; the danger of the evolution of an information underclass on domestic as well as international scales; and the challenges and opportunities which a wired world will pose to national security. To promote original ideas in this area, the conference will examine these questions as part of a scenario building exercise, designed to encourage an integrated consideration of the disparate strands of the issue at hand and to generate outlines of a series of possible futures which might - without engaging in prediction - illuminate the opportunities and dangers ahead. This conference is being held with generous sponsorship from Equant/Global One.


3. Human Rights as Collective Rights: benefits and pitfalls

Madingley Hall, Cambridge
28 October - 4 November 2001


Senior Fellow

Neal AschersonJournalist and Author


Minority Rights Amidst Conflict

Professor Andrew MichelsDePaul University College of Law, Chicago

Collective rights and their dilemmas: which rights for which groups

Professor Will KymlickaQueen's University, Kingston

Case study: the Roma

Dr Michael StewartUniversity College London

Minorities and participatory democracy

Maleiha MalikKing's College London

Is unequal treatment of groups ever fair?

Professor Brian BarryColumbia University

Case study: Inuit ideas of ownership

Hugh BrodyAnthropologist and Film-maker

Self-determination and its limits: inherent right, threat to peace, or both?

Edward MortimerDirector of Communications, Office of the UN Secretary-General, New York

Case study: collective rights in the South Tyrol

Dr Jens WoelkUniversity of Trento

Righting historical wrongs and the claims culture

Ian BurumaAuthor and formerly Fellow of the Woodrow Wilson Institute for the Humanities, Washington DC
Chidi OdinkaluSenior Legal Officer, Interights

Advertised Synopsis

Human rights considerations play a central role not only in domestic constitutional arrangements, their long-established home, but also more and more in international affairs. A thornier question is what rights can be said to reside in a collective or group - be it ethnic, linguistic or religious. The international community does recognize such collective rights to a limited degree. Self-determination is inherent in a people, not in individuals, and, under the Genocide Convention, states are bound to intervene in other states' affairs because of an attack on an identifiable group in a way which more indiscriminate mass slaughter alone does not compel. This conference will examine some of the difficulties inherent in the question of collective rights, with particular consideration of the place of minorities in national political arrangements and in international affairs, including: How far do such rights go, or are even self-determination and genocide concepts too fraught with difficulty to be used except as justifications? What sorts of groups can make a claim to this kind of right? How can a group with a claim to collective identity and rights assert itself and have its assertion recognized? How can such rights be exercised and who can claim to speak on behalf of a group especially where traditional power structures are not democratic? How can the exercise of collective rights be reconciled with the rights of other groups, or to individual rights both within and without the collective, when there is a clash?


2001 Fellowship Programme

Orientalism Today

Hotel Richmond, Istanbul
5-7 October 2001


Orientalism and its enemies in the late 20th century

Sir Michael WeirBritish Ambassador to Egypt 1979-1985, and Director of the 21st Century Trust 1990-2000

Will new communication technologies make a difference?

Metehan Sekban Coordinator of the MBA Programme, Bilgi University

Transnationalised eyes and the importance of film: new perspectives in contemporary cinema

Professor Deniz DermanBahcesehir University, Istanbul

Case study: the impact of cultural assumptions at home and abroad on Turkey's role in the international community

Professor Hüseyin BagciMiddle East Technical University, Ankara

Brief Description

Istanbul stands at the crossroads between Europe and Asia. It is an ideal place to consider how people from different cultural backgrounds view each other and how those views affect international relations. Looking at film and the press, what in particular is the role of the media in this? How might cross-cultural views be affected by new communications technologies? How might Turkey specifically be affected by cultural assumptions at home and abroad, given its key strategic role in the Middle East and Central Asia, as a member of Nato and as an aspirant member of the European Union?


Relations Between the United States and Europe: Future Prospects

Scotland House, Rond Point Schuman, Brussels
16-17 November 2001


The longer view: possible points of tension in the alliance and how they might be resolved

Guillaume Parmentier Institut Français des Relations Internationales, Paris

The view from NATO

Lord RobertsonSecretary General of Nato

The evolution of the transatlantic alliance

Dr Alice AckermannThe George C. Marshall European Center for Security Studies, Garmisch-Partenkirchen

The view from the European Union

The Rt Hon Chris PattenEuropean Commissioner for External Affairs, Chairman 21st Century Trust

Economics and the environment: where do US interests converge with Europe, where do they differ?

Dr David VictorCouncil on Foreign Relations, New York

Political cultures and world views: how wide is the Atlantic?

Nicole RenvertDirector Transatlantic Project, Bertelsmann Stiftung, Gütersloh
Dr Robert McGeehanInstitute of United States Studies, University of London

Views of the Middle East and the War on Terrorism

Sir Michael WeirBritish Ambassador to Egypt 1979-1985, and Director of the 21st Century Trust 1990-2000
Maj. Douglas McNarySenior Analyst, Emergent Information Technologies, Washington DC, Major in US Air Force Reserve

Brief Description

Relations between Europe and the United States seems as strong as ever, but face a number of difficult challenges, particularly in the fields of security and economics. Nato has not only survived the end of the Cold War, confounding some commentators, but has expanded and been more active militarily than ever before in its intervention in the Balkans. However, there are possible strains in the alliance as the United States, with the advent of a new administration, debates its own national interest and looks to protect it with a missile defence system. Some European allies fear that this will leave them out in the cold and destabilize arms control. Political integration in Europe, on the other hand, is starting to take on a military dimension with plans for a rapid reaction force. This might operate neatly within Nato structures or might, as some critics fear and some supporters wish, outgrow Nato as the European Union becomes more assertive on security matters. In their economic relations, the US and the EU have generally worked together within the WTO and the Bretton Woods institutions to resolve disputes and to manage globalization and its attendant squalls. However, disputes over issues such as intellectual property and trade in bananas have at times been bitter, and may presage further tensions as the political balance and economic conditions change. This seminar will examine what shape the transatlantic alliance is in and discuss the different possible directions it may take in the future.